These are two illuminated gospel books were made between 300-700 AD at Abba Garima Monastery in Ethiopia.
The Garima Gospels contain twenty eight full-page illuminations; each one bursting with color. The remarkably extant book covers are decorated with gold, silver, and holes where gems had been placed.
According to the oral history of the monastery, the manuscripts were scribed and illustrated by Abba Garima himself in the 490s AD. Thus, the Garima Gospels were acknowledged by the monks as being extremely old and religiously valuable.
The handful of Western scholars who managed to venture to Abba Garima Monastery upon their inspection of the manuscripts suspected some Mediterranean influence, but concluded that the illuminations were within a firmly conventional and uninteresting style of 12th-14th century Ethiopian painting.
It was not until 2000, when the French scholar Jaques Mercier brought fragments of the manuscripts’ parchment to Oxford University for radiocarbon dating, that the Garima Gospels were pushed into the international spotlight as one of the oldest (and most well preserved) illuminated gospel books.
Now, the Garima Gospels are considered one of the artistic wonders of the world: a priceless treasure from the ancient world preserved in the most unlikely of places.
The difficulty of actually seeing these extraordinary manuscripts—many of them are hoarded away in the mountain monasteries of Ethiopia—has kept the art historical community from bringing to light what could be a vast and beautiful strain of Late Antique painted religious books.
Additionally, it was not until scholars found a possible connection that the manuscripts shared with the “Western tradition” that they decided it was worthy of actually being looked at!
The Garima Gospels are both heartening and frustrating in this regard…
#Rachel Held Evans
We talk about “biblical families,” “biblical marriage,” “biblical economics,” “biblical politics,” “biblical values,” “biblical stewardship,” “biblical voting,” “biblical manhood,” “biblical womanhood,” even “biblical dating” to create the impression that the Bible has just one thing to say on each of these topics - that it offers a single prescriptive formula for how people of faith ought to respond to them.
But the Bible is not a position paper. The Bible is an ancient collection of letters, laws, poetry, proverbs, histories, prophecies, philosophy and stories spanning multiple genres and assembled over thousands of years in cultures very different from our own.
When we turn the Bible into an adjective and stick it in front of another loaded word, we tend to ignore or downplay the parts of the Bible that don’t quite fit our preferences and presuppositions. In an attempt to simplify, we force the Bible’s cacophony of voices into a single tone and turn a complicated, beautiful, and diverse holy text into a list of bullet points we can put in a manifesto or creed. More often than not, we end up more committed to what we want the Bible to say than what it actually says.
This three-legged decorated war hero had one leg lost to surgery after taking four rounds from an AK-47.
Bad. Mother. Fucker.
Those eyes say “Pretend to throw the tennis ball. I dare you to only pretend.”
I think those eyes say a lot more than that. He’s seen more than I ever will, done more than I’ll ever do, and his war will never be over.
He’s got Ranger scrolls on his collar. That dog is a god damn hero.
I just noticed the Purple Heart and that Scroll.
Wow. Just wow.
The picture alone, in all it’s detail says a lot of things. god damn.
I can’t not reblog this dog… his you
Eyes say so much
I’ve never seen a dog with such a face like that. Like an old man who went to war and if you ask him about he just stiffens up and face turns to stone.
Layka is a lady dog. Let’s remember that.
Now, it’s an understandable problem - our socialization instantly encourages us to see this rugged, sleek, military animal as a male. Three-legged hero dog with military decorations and stern-appearing eyes? TOTALLY A DUDE DOG, JUST LOOK AT HIM. It’s a programmed response, and nothing to be ashamed of - let’s just be accurate and note that Layka’s a female.
I’ve highlighted all the reblogs above where Layka is described as a hero, an old man, with male pronouns - rather than the fierce, charming heroine she is. It’s kind of a teachable moment: how does an image of an animal, displaying absolutely no secondary sex characteristics, instantly give us these fictional headcanons about its gender and gender performance? It’s an impressive demonstration of our ability to translate body language.
The photographer who took this compelling shot noted that Layka’s playful, bouncy energy made it nearly impossible for him to get a shot with her mouth closed! He ended up having to stop using the tennis ball he was using to get her attention, because it made her too excited and smiley. Based on the photos below, I think she’d have quite a sense of humor about the “where’s the tennis ball?” game!
Of course, the photographer did end up connecting with a fundamental aspect of Layka’s nature in the cover photo; her serious, soldier side. But that’s not all the animal is. Does the dog in the unused shots still resemble an “old man?” Is the dog in the unused shots male or female? Is it still a hero with its tongue out? Is it still admirable without a “face like stone?”
This is what I mean when I say that we have to examine the lenses of culture and society that we are always, always looking through when we talk about science biology.
"God is the goodness that cannot be wrath, for he is nothing other than goodness."
#Julian of Norwich
"In September 1917 the journalist Michael MacDonagh was at London’s Clapham Junction station, where he observed two trains as they drew up on opposite sides of the platform. One contained Tommies bound for the front and the other German prisoners of war. The Germans laughed and shouted ‘Kamerad,’ and the Tommies responded by throwing the Germans chocolate and tobacco. ‘Many people,’ reflected MacDonagh initially, ‘say the War will never end. I often wonder whether it may not be brought to a finish by the rank and file on both sides deciding to lay down their arms and go home.’"
#world war one
Modris Eksteins, Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age.
Yes. As my tutors have always, always said (and perhaps to generalise, as is my wont) history is hardly about events, but always about people - the slow progression of the everyday that culminates and shapes change.
(I firmly think full time volunteer programs should be abolished/illegal. It was different ten years ago when people could make some sort of free choice to volunteer. Nowadays young people do it because it’s their ONLY way to gain the “experience” necessary to get a real job. Nonprofits who take…
I did a year-long volunteer program and, honestly, it was the best thing I have ever done. It changed my life. I lived in community with other volunteers. We were given room/board, food budget, bus passes, & a modest monthly allowance. We made far less than minimum wage. None of the folks in my volunteer year (or other people I know who served through AmeriCorps or a faith-based program) participated to “get our foot in the door.” We served because we were (are) passionate about social justice, advocacy, etc. Some choose to serve a year because they weren’t sure what their next step should be. None everyone is cut out to serve for a year in this type of program. However, I’d whole-heartedly recommend serving a volunteer year.
Reblogging for Lighttheflame’s comment.
I know the UK is different because we have benefits that just sort of think about covering the most basic needs for someone out of work (and therefore “free” (ha!) to volunteer full time), but I would always recommend volunteering in that situation, for a variety of reasons, one of which is “experience” in the sense of working with a whole host of different people with different lives and needs… It’s not about getting a foot in the door, it’s about developing a much broader awareness of, well, everything.
Meanwhile, it bugs the heck out of me that as a non US national, in Ireland, I can’t really apply to Mercy Corps volunteer program which I would *love* to do. And we just don’t have anything similar here that I can find.
Would you mind praying for Glasgow and the rest of Scotland? A unionist rally celebrating the no vote has turned nasty, and there's talk of Orange Order marches happening tomorrow. I'm actually scared.
Of course I’ll pray. (I actually woke up briefly not long after you sent this request in, so was also praying in the middle of the night too.)
Please God the rioters will calm down. And while I hope that there are no marches, if there are, hopefully they will pass off peacefully, like the majority of Orange Marches here. (and the majority *do* pass off peacefully, normally speaking.)
May God bring the people of Scotland peace, and the unity needed to move forward from the vote results. And, if you believe in the intercession of Saints, do ask St Margaret of Scotland to intercede on the country’s behalf as well.
Praying that today will be a better day, and that God will grant you serenity and freedom from fear.
#St Margaret of Scotland